Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Autofocus Nested Textboxes with Rx in Silverlight

The Problem

A common UI pattern is to expose text in a read-only container, then swap it for an editable input box based on a command. There are multiple approaches to doing this (including just changing the style of the same container). Swapping between a read-only TextBlock to a TextBox is easy enough, but what if you want to also focus and select the TextBox so the user can simply begin typing? And what if the UI elements are nestled deep with in a data template so there is no straightforward way to reference them?

A Solution

I say, "a solution" because there are probably other ones, but this is how I recently tackled the problem.

Unique Identifier

First, I figured no matter how nested the text box would be, it most likely is data bound to some data element. So, in order to uniquely identify the "transaction" I could expose a unique identifier on the bound object. Assume the bound field is "Name":

public string NameIdentifier { get; private set; }

...

// constructor
NameIdentifier = Guid.NewGuid.ToString();

The Message

Using the Event Aggregator pattern, I created a message payload specifically for the "message" that the text item should receive focus:

public class TextFocusEvent
{
    public TextFocusEvent(string identifier)
    {
        Identifier = identifier;
    }
    public string Identifier { get; set; }
}

In the "edit command" we can now publish our message that the text box should receive focus (notice I'm using the DelegateCommand from Prism):

EditCommand = new DelegateCommand<object>(
    obj =>
        {
            if (!EditCommand.CanExecute(obj)) return;

            _oldName = _name;
            IsInEditMode = true;
            EventAggregator.Publish(new TextFocusEvent(NameIdentifier));
        },
    obj => !IsInEditMode);

In this case, you can infer we have an IsInEditMode flag exposed, which we can use to bind the visibility of the TextBlock and TextBox to swap them out. The event saves the old name so if the user cancels, it can be put back. We've just published an event to let the world know that text box deserves some focus. Now let's catch it!

The Behavior

I decided to go with a behavior that could subscribe to the message. Because my event aggregator is based on Reactive Extensions (Rx), instead of being a straight event subscription, it actually returns IObservable, which can be filtered using LINQ. This way an attached behavior can simply listen for the specific identifier it is "tuned" to. We want to databind the identifier because it is generated by the view model, so we expose that property as a dependency property. Here's the behavior:

public class TextBoxFocusListenerBehavior : Behavior<TextBox>
{
    [Import]
    public IEventAggregator EventAggregator { get; set; }

    public static readonly DependencyProperty IdentifierProperty =
            DependencyProperty.Register("Identifier", 
            typeof (string), 
            typeof (TextBoxFocusListenerBehavior),
            new PropertyMetadata(string.Empty));

    private IDisposable _listener;

    public string Identifier
    {
        get { return GetValue(IdentifierProperty).ToString(); }
        set { SetValue(IdentifierProperty, value);}
    }

    protected override void OnAttached()
    {
        if (DesignerProperties.IsInDesignTool)
        {
            return;
        }

        if (EventAggregator == null)
        {
            CompositionInitializer.SatisfyImports(this);
        }

        if (EventAggregator != null)
        {
            var query = from evt in EventAggregator.GetEvent<TextFocusEvent>()
                        where evt.Identifier.Equals(Identifier)
                        select true;

            _listener = query.Subscribe(evt =>
                                            {
                                                if (AssociatedObject.Focus())
                                                {
                                                    AssociatedObject.SelectAll();
                                                }
                                            });
        }

        base.OnAttached();
    }

    protected override void OnDetaching()
    {
        if (_listener != null)
        {
            _listener.Dispose();
        }
        base.OnDetaching();
    }
}

So what's going on? First, we are importing the global event aggregator (we know this fires on the UI thread, so I'm not using a mutex to check to see if I need to satisfy the imports and request the reference from MEF). To stay design-time friendly, we don't try to compose if we're in design mode.

When the behavior is attached, the subscription is made for the event. Notice, however, that a filter is being used to filter only the identifier we are interested in. When a new event is pushed to us, we simply set the focus and auto-select the text. This has the effect of highlighting the text box so the user can begin typing right away. When the behavior is detached, we dispose of the subscription.

The XAML

Now we can put it all together and attach the behavior in our XAML:

<TextBox Text="{Binding Name, Mode=TwoWay}">
    <i:Interaction.Behaviors>
             <behaviors:TextBoxFocusListenerBehavior Identifier="{Binding NameIdentifier}"/>
    </i:Interaction.Behaviors>
</TextBox>
<HyperlinkButton Content="edit" Command="{Binding EditCommand}"/>

I've left out the nuances of the TextBlock and related code to swap into/out of view, but you get the point ... now, even if the text box is buried within a set of data templates, simple data-binding gives us the way to tie the edit event with the focus behavior. Of course, the event aggregator is a generic approach: you could also create a more strongly typed message contract between the behavior and the event.
Jeremy Likness

2 comments:

  1. The code make sense but when I put it into VS2010 it does not like the Event "TextFocusEvent" the section of code having the problem is:

    if (EventAggregator != null)

    33 {

    34 var query = from evt in EventAggregator.GetEvent()

    35 where evt.Identifier.Equals(Identifier)

    36 select true;

    37

    38 _listener = query.Subscribe(evt =>

    39 {

    40 if (AssociatedObject.Focus())

    41 {

    42 AssociatedObject.SelectAll();

    43 }

    44 });

    45 }

    Can you be more specific on the event definition.

    Thanks,
    Mark

    ReplyDelete
  2. The event definition is an event aggregator function, not part of the built-in functions on the control.

    ReplyDelete